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The China National Silk Museum, opened to the public in February 1992, is located in Hangzhou City of East China’s Zhejiang Province. It is a special museum dedicated to the exhibition of China’s more than 5,000 years of silk culture and history.

The museum completed renovation in September 2003 and has been open to the public for free since January2004.

 The “Display of Chinese Silk Culture” is the museum’s main display, divided into the Prelude Hall, the Display of Silk Stories, the Display of Silk Craft, and the temporary exhibition hall.

 The “Display of Chinese Silk Culture” won the Prize of Elaborate Works in the Sixth National Top Ten Museums (2003-2004) competition.

The Luoyang Peony is China’s traditional and well-known flower. It always represents elegance and poise. With various varieties and marvelous colors, the Luoyang Peony enjoys the honor of “King of the Flower Kingdom” and “Luoyang Peony Ranking the First under Heaven”.

Throughout the city, you can see all kinds of peonies with colors ranging from red, pink and white to the rarest dark. When spring arrives, the whole city is soaked in the sweet smell of peony. In 1982, it was defined as the city flower of Luoyang and at the same time, a decision was made to hold an annual peony fair festival in Luoyang from April 15 to 25, concurrently with lantern shows and other forms of entertainment. During the festival, people from all corners meet inLuoyangto see the peonies and so the city livens up with a spectacle of seas of flowers and tides of people.

In April, you can enjoy yourself in the streets, onPeony Square, inPeonyParkandXiyuanPark. But the most famous place to view and admire the Luoyang Peony isWangchengPark.

Located on both banks ofJianRiveron the north side of the western reach ofZhongzhou Road,WangchengParkgains its name only because it is now on the relics of theImperialCityin the Western Zhou Dynasty. Covering an area of 67 hectares, it is the largest comprehensive park inLuoyang.

There is a zoo, peony yards, swimming pools and an under-ground exhibition room of the Han Tomb. In the peony yards on both sides of Jian River, there are thousands of rare and precious peonies named “”Yellow yao “and “Purple wei”. These two peony yards become the main spot of the annual peony fair.

The ancient architectural complex in the western part of the park fully displays the lingering charm of the Zhou’s architectural style. The tablet named Hetu and Luoshu is another attractive spot there. Hetu and Luoshu is a famous legend of ancient Chinese civilization. Some 6,000 to 7,000 years ago, a horse with a picture-scroll named Hetu on its back sprang out of the Yellow River, and an immortal turtle with a book named Luoshu on its back swam in theLuoRiver. Later, Fuxi, known as the ancestor of human beings, deducted the Eight Diagrams of Yin and yang (the positive and negative) and thus the universe was divided into two, the Heaven and the Earth. However, according to the doctrine of Luoshu, Dayu, the first king of the Chinese Nation, drew up a constitution named “Hong Fan Jiu Chou” to rule the country and from then on began the Chinese civilization. So during every Pure Brightness Festival-held in the 5th of the 24 solar terms, personages of various circles gather here to worship their common ancestors.

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MountLushan, located by thePoyangLake, 36 kilometers south ofJiujiang City,Jiangxi.

Province, covers an area of 350 square kilometers. The HanyangPeak, the highest, rises 1,474 meters above sea level. At Lushan, towering peaks and dangerously steep cliffs on all sides surround a relatively gentle center. The landscape here is spectacular with some 100 peaks being veiled in mist for some 191 days annually on average. It is particular cool in summer and is therefore a world-renowned summer resort.
  
Mount Lushan has plenty of scenic attractions, including the Wulaofeng (Five Elderly Men Peaks), Xianrendong (Immortal‘s Cavern) and the White Deer Cave Academy, which, situated on the Houping Hill south of the Five Elderly Men Peaks, was one of the earliest institutes of higher learning in China. It was first built by Li Bo, an official of Tang Dynasty (618-907) at the beginning of the seventh century and was extended during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). It was one of the four largest academies in China, and teachers such as Zhu Xi and Lu Xiangshan, philosophers of the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279), had many students here.
  
In 1996, Mount Lushan was placed on the world cultural heritage list.

HeilongjiangProvinceis a popular destination, if you’re after tourism combined with a little bit of history. As the birthplace of many ethnic cultures,Heilongjiang is taking advantage of its rich cultural legacy to attract curious visitors. Let’s head to a museum inChina’s northernmost province, to check it out.

TheJinShangjingHistory Museum in Harbin is the only museum inChinahousing cultural relics from the Jin dynasty.

Among the over 2,000 exhibits, 19 are category one National historical Relics.

For many young visitors or students on vacation, the exhibition offers something they can’t find in textbooks.

Wang Yue, visitor, said, “There are many excavated relics, showing what the capital city of the Jin Dynasty was like and the people’s customs. It’s very interesting.”

In around 1000 AD, nomads in northernChinastarted gathering in small tribes, eventually growing together to build the Jin Dynasty.

The Jin people are said to be the ancestors of the Manchu, who hundreds of years later founded the Qing Dynasty and ruled the whole ofChina.

Wang Yongnian, director ofHarbinIntangibleCulturalHeritageCenter, said, “The main feature of Jin culture is persistance and progress, bravery and modesty. Many aspects of our modern life actually date back to Jin nomadic culture.”

Cao Xiao, college student, said, “I know Jin culture is very good, so I come here to learn something about it.”

During last year’s Qingming Festival, the museum received 15 hundred visitors. Now, with a free ticket policy in museums all over the country,JinShangjing History Museum is expecting to see those numbers rise by around 20 percent.

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The Great Wall museum is the first one to exhibit the Great Wall culture in a comprehensive and systematic way.

Its main building takes a shape of a typical signal fire tower on the Great Wall. Inside the museum there are seven exhibition halls. The basic part of the exhibitions, titled “the Great Wall”, is divided into four sections: the Great Wall in the spring and Autumn Period and the Warring Period, the Great Wall in Qin Dynasty and Han Dynasty, the Great Wall in Sui, Tang, Liao and Jing Dynasty, and the Great Wall in Ming Dynasty. It tells the visitor the history of the Great Wall over the time of 3,000 years.

It also shows the results of the study on the Great Wall and archaeological findings of the last 50 years. There are different exhibiting forms: charts, models, diagrams, texts, and pictures. They, on the one hand, provide rich information for researchers on the Great Wall; on the other hand, provide integrated and direct knowledge for visitors. The museum is really a textbook on the Great Wall culture.

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The Yellow River is the second longest river in China and the fifth longest in the world at 5,464 kilometers (3,398 miles).

 Originating in theBayankalaMountainsinQinghaiProvincein westernChina, it flows through nine provinces of China, namelyQinghai,Sichuan,Gansu, Ningxia,Inner Mongolia,Shaanxi,Shanxi,Henan, and Shandong Provinces and empties into the Bo Sea.

 TheYellow River gains its name for its major color that is the color of sand, because the river is the highest sand-capacity one in the world.

Part1 History & Culture 

As the Chinese regard yellow as an emblem of loess land, the emperor, the yellow skin and the legendary Chinese Dragon, the Yellow River is referred as not only a river, but also “the MotherRiver” and “the Cradle of the Chinese Civilization”.

 30 million years ago, ancient Chinese started to live by the shore of theYellow Riverand played the overture of the ancient Chinese civilization. It is the birthplace of the ancient Chinese civilizations and is the most prosperous region in early Chinese history. Six thousand years ago, as a representative of the matriarchal culture, Banpo Clan had existence on the Loess land of northChina.

 The reign of Chinese ancient emperors of several dynasties promotes the development of ancient Chinese civilizations to the peak. Gunpowder, compass, paper making, printing, poetry, Song of the Song Dynasty , all of these inventions and scientific achievements not only promote Chinese culture development, but also spread it to the rest of the world, making an important contribution to the cultural development of human beings.

Part2 Distribution

It is commonly considered that theYellow Rivercan be divided into the three following reaches.

 The upper reaches of the yellow river is referred to the area above theHekouTowninTuoketuoCounty, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The river in this section goes rushing and carries for nearly 50 percent of water resource ofYellow river.

 The middle reaches runs fromHekouTownto Tao Huayu inZhengzhou,HenanProvince. The river passes through the longest series of continuous valleys on its main course, collectively called theJinshanValley. The large amount of mud and sand discharged into the river makes theYellow Riverthe most sediment-laden river in the world. And the abundant hydrodynamic resources stored in this section make it the second most suitable area to build hydroelectric power plants.

 The lower reaches of the Yellow River is recognized as the area below Tao Huayu inZhengzhou.

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Located in the west of  Henan Province in central China,Luoyang occupies quite an important geographic location. It is in the middle reaches of theYellow River and is encircled by mountains and plains. To its east and west are the Hu Lao Pass and Han Gu Pass which were essential domestic transportation junctions in ancient times. To its north,MengjinCountywas an important ferry crossing of theYellow River. Thus,Luoyangwas selected as the capital city by 13 dynasties starting from the Xia Dynasty (21st-16th century BC) in the 21st century BC. In the period following the Han Dynasty (206BC-220), and particularly during the Sui (581-618) and Tang (618-907) dynasties, the city experienced a period of growth and prosperity and ranked as one of the international metropolitans of the time.

Its long history endowsLuoyangwith a profound sense of culture. The city is the cradle of Chinese civilization where many Chinese legends happened, such as Nvwa Patching the Sky, Dayu Controlling Flood and the Chinese ancestor Huangdi Establishing the Nation. The city is also famed as the ‘Poets Capital’ as poets and literates of ancient China often gathered there and left grand works, Longmen Grottoes including ‘Book of Wisdom’ (‘Daode Jing’), ‘Han History’ (‘Han Shu’) and ‘Administrative Theory of Admonishing Official’ (‘Zi Zhi Tong Jian’). Religious culture once thrived here. Taoism originated there and the first Buddhist temple set up by the government was located there.Luoyangis also the hometown of many of the scientific inventions of ancientChina, such as the seismograph, armillary sphere, paper making, printing and the compass.

 Luoyang has rich historical and cultural sites. The Longmen Grottoes are one of China’s three most precious treasure houses of stone sculptures and inscriptions. The White Horse Temple is the first Buddhist temple and is honored as the “Cradle of Buddhism inChina”.  Mt.Mangshanis where ancient tombs of emperors, nobles and literates in the past dynasties collected. The Luoyang Ancient Tombs Museum is the world’s first example of the kind and presents thousands of treasures discovered in the tombs.ShaolinTempleis the place of origin for Chinese Zen Buddhism and the cradle of Chinese Martial Art. Landscapes inLuoyanghold the same attraction as the cultural sites.WhiteCloudMountain,FuniuMountain, Long Yu Wan National Forest Park, Ji Guan Limestone Cave and the Yellow River Xiaolangdi Scenic Area are all worth a visit. Additionally,Luoyangis particularly well known for its peonies. Every year in April, the flowers blossom and attract tourists from all over the world.

White Horse Temple Dining inLuoyangis quite an enjoyable experience. Various kinds of local dishes, including Water Feast, Yan Cai and others which use the famousYellow Rivercarps as an ingredient, together with the uniquely flavored soups, will greatly satisfy your taste buds.Luoyang’s local specialties such as Palace Lanterns, bronze vessels and Tri-colored glazed potteries will no doubt delight your eyes and offer you ideal souvenirs. Being a modern city as well,Luoyanghas hotels of all standards which provide you quite a broad choice for your stay. Most of the hotels have reasonable room prices and perfect services.

Transportation is well developed inLuoyang.BeijiaoAirporthas many domestic flights extending to many large cities in other provinces. It’s also very easy to get toLuoyangby train because one ofChina’s most important railway lines Long Hai Railway traverses the city and connects most cities in east, west and centralChina. The convenient city buses and taxies can carry you around the city. Near the railway station, special tourist buses can take you to the tourist spots in the suburban areas of the city.

Luoyang, a charming city filled with the fragrance of peonies and the primitive atmosphere of ancient civilization, is waiting and welcoming guests from all over the world. Putting the city into the list of your exploration inChina, you will get far more than what you expect.

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JiayuPass, known as the “No. 1 Strategic pass in the world”, is the western end of the Great Wall.

 The existing Jiayu Pass walls were built in the time of Ming Dynasty. The construction of these walls began in 1372. It was not until 1539 that they became a complete defense system, which had three defense lines, the entrenchment, the outer wall, and the inner wall.

 There are many legends concerning the construction of the walls and the most widely spread one is“the Last Piece of Brick”. In the construction ofJiayuPass, the project official proposes a thorny request that the budget of materials must be precise. As a result, when the project was completed, almost all the materials were run out with only one piece of brick, thus this piece of brick was called the last piece of brick which is still laid on the platform of the gate wall now. Many visitors come here to take a look at the last piece of brick with the respect to the ancient artisans.

 

The Terracotta Warriors Museum lies 1.5 kmeast to the Tomb of Qin First Emperor.

The Terracotta Warriors lie underground for more than 2000 years. In 1974, farmers digging a well about 1500 meters east of the tomb uncovered one of the greatest archaeological sites in the world. The firstly discovered site of Terracotta Warriors was named Vault One.

In 1976, the other two vaults were uncovered 20-25 meter close to the Vault One, and were named Vault Two and Vault Three respectively. Excavation of the underground vaults of earth and timber revealed thousands of life – Terracotta Warriors in battle formation – a whole army which would accompany its emperor into immortality. The excavation was a real big shock to the whole world – the vaults are so big, the figures are so vivid and the number of the figure is so incredible!

Every figure differs from those around in facial features and expressions, clothing, hairstyle, gesture. The horsemen, the longbow bearers, the archers, the senior officers and generals were positioned in strict accordance with the ancient directives on the art of war. Many of the figures originally held real weapons of the time, such as bronze swords, longbows, arrowheads, spears, dagger-axes and other long-shaft weapons. Surface treatment of the weapons made them resistant to rust and corrosion so that after being buried for over 2000 years they were still sharp.

The Terracotta Warriors supply abundant and real objects of military, culture and economy to the study of the history of that period. The excavation of the Terracotta Warriors was regarded as one of the greatest discovery in the 20th century. In Dec. 1987, the UNESCO ranked the Tomb of the First Emperor (including the Terracotta Warriors Vaults) into the list of World Cultural Heritages. Standing in the exhibition hall, one would be shocked by such a grand ancient army formation, which will lead you back to the ancient warring situation. The tomb is a treasury for the Chinese people and for the whole world as well.

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Zhangjiajie is a rising tourist city famous for its unique natural scenery and abundant tourism resources. A  Hollywood photographer came to Zhangjiajie in 2008 and took pictures that inspired artists who designed the settings of Avatar. It is located in the northwest ofHunanprovince, about 400 kilometers away fromChangsha, capital ofHunan, covering a total area of 9,563 square kilometers, of which 76% are mountainous area. Out of its total population of 1.62 million, almost 72% belong to ethnic minority groups, including Tujia, Bai and Miao nationalities.

Zhangjiajie is a prefecture-level city consisting of Yongding and Wulingyuan Districts, Cili and Sangzhi Counties. Wulingyuan District, also called Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area, is endowed with striking natural beauty. This site is dominated by more than 3,000 narrow sandstone pillars and peaks, many over200mhigh. Between the peaks lie ravines and gorges with streams, pools and waterfalls, 40 caves, and two large natural bridges. It is also home to a number of endangered plant and animal species. Therefore, it was listed into the World Natural Heritage Catalogue by the UNESCO in 1992. What’s more, Zhangjiajie was awarded the title of “WorldGeologicalPark” in 2004.

 Quartz Sandstone Peak Forest and Karst Caves constitute the outstanding landscape features of Zhangjiajie, which are rare in the world. Here you’ll find yourself with hundreds of grotesque peaks, beautiful waters, towering trees, deep valleys, marvelous caves and exuberant forest that have formed a complete primitive ecological environment. In fact, Zhangjiajie, honored as “the most fantastic mountain under heaven” and ” a living Chinese landscape painting”, is a perfect combination of the beauty of Guilin, the grotesqueness ofMount Huang, the peril of Mount Hua and the magnificence of Mount Tai. It is also widely acclaimed as “an enlarged potted landscaping”, “a miniature fairyland” and “a maze of nature”, attracting a growing number of tourists from home and abroad.

 There are over 300 marvelous scenic spots in Zhangjiajie, such asTianzi Mountain, Yangjiajie andBaofeng Lake. As the core of  Zhangjiajie attractions, Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area is composed of Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, two major Nature Reserves -TianziMountainandSuoxiValleyand the new Yangjiajie Scenic Area, stretching over a total area of 397 square kilometers. Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, set up in 1982, is the first authorized national forest park inChina, featured by its unique hills, queer ridges and peaks, tranquil valleys, clear streams, abundant fauna and flora and hospitable climate. There are six main scenic spots and over 90 smaller ones in the park,which will bring you a lot of excitement and fun.

 Near the downtown area of Zhangjiajie stands grand Tianmen Mountain called “the Soul of Wuling”, and there is a beautiful Maoyan River that enjoys the reputation of “one-hundred-li long gallery” , a Jiutian Cave named “the number-one cave in Asia” and other charming scenic spots in Wulingyuan. All these natural wonders are worth exploring. In addition, you can take great delight in touring thePuguangBuddhistTemple, Hongjiaguan- Former Residence of Marshal Helong,TujiaFolkCustomPark, the Old House and other historical and cultural sites in Zhangjiajie.

After more than twenty years of development, tourism industry has become the leading industry in Zhangjiajie, which has stimulated the development of other industries related to tourism. In the meantime, ecotourism has been developed greatly here. When you come to Zhangjiajie, you can fully appreciate its magnificent natural scenery and experience appealing folk custom as well as other thrilling tourist activities, and you will be deeply impressed by the hospitality of local people. We are sure that your visit to Zhangjiajie is really exciting, joyful and unforgettable.

 The geological formation of Zhangjiajie belongs to the New Cathaysian tectonic system. About three billion and eight thousand years ago, this place was a large patch of ocean. After a series of geological changes including Wuling-xuefeng, Indo-china, Yanshan, Himalayan and Neotectonic movements, the bottom of ocean rose out of the surface, and the quartzite sandstone pillars and peaks took shape after the gradual cutting, eroding and crumbling of Nature for millions of years.

 The entire area is covered with towering cliffs of sandstone of quartz and dense unspoiled forests that conceal fantastic caves full of stalactites and stalagmites. The quartzite sandstone hills in Wulingyuan are unique in their large number and fairly pure composition (being 75-95% of quartz). With the changes of seasons and the weather, they constantly present different views to spectators. The highest peak in this area is Tuerwangyue Feng or Rabbit Watching theMoonPeakandMt.Tianziis particularly recommended for its good view.

 Zhangjiajie belongs to the sub-tropical humid monsoon climate. Splendid mountains and thick trees help form a favorable climate: warm in winter and cool in summer. The annual average temperature is16℃and the annual average sunshine hours and the amount of rainfall are 1440 hours and1400 mmrespectively. The average frost-free period over the past years is about 216 to 269 days a year. The charm of the scenery varies with the alternation of seasons, so it attracts visitors all year round.

Besides its pleasant climate, the primitive ecological environment also offers visitors a rare chance to breathe healthy air which is believed to be rich in negative oxygen. It is also believed that hypertension patient may have their blood pressure lowered if they stay in theforest parkfor a period of time. This is due to the fact that dust particles in the park are 88% lower and the air 10% mistier than outside.

 In ancient times, Zhangjiajie was regarded as remote and inaccessible. The earliest human activities can be traced to 100, 000 years ago and the legendary god of Agriculture was said to live a reclusive life here. Local story also indicates that Zhang liang, a lord in the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), lived here in seclusion and was buried below Qingyan (now Zhangjiajie) Mountain.

Zhangjiajie was formerly named Dayong city, founded in 1988. As Zhangjiajie National Forest Park is increasingly becoming known to world, Dayong city was renamed as Zhangjiajie city under the permission of the State Council in 1994. Now, Zhangjiajie has basically developed a large-scale, high-rank tourist resort where strange mountains, green lakes, deep caves, serene valleys and historical culture and special folk customs are well blended into a beautiful painting.

Zhangjiajie is home to major three ethnic groups—Tujia, Bai and Miao people, which together make up approximately 70% of the local population. Up to now, these people still remain much of their traditional culture, including the language, festivals, clothing, and architectural styles as well. The long history of many minorities and their folk customs such as marriage custom, singing and dancing together with modern culture all contribute to the charm of Zhangjiajie. One thing is certain: All of these will give you a lasting memory.

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